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High blood pressure and thiazide diuretics

Hypertension and thiazide diuretics

With a significantly elevated blood pressure (hypertension) medications must be taken.

In the following paragraphs, the thiazide diuretic (which is prescribed for treating high blood pressure) is discussed in detail.

Definition of the thiazide diuretic

A thiazide diuretic is a diuretic drug (diuretic). Thus, the resorption of sodium and chloride in the kidney is inhibited. The diuretic chlorothiazide, which was one of the first developed diuretics, was further developed and thus the thiazide diuretics emerged.

Thiazides inhibit sodium and chloride cotransport at the luminal membrane. If the drug is taken in higher doses, it additionally inhibits carbonic anhydrase.

In this way, water is excreted by the thiazides and increased sodium diuresis occurs which has an indirect effect on the blood pressure insomuch that it is lowered. In addition, the excretion of calcium in the urine is reduced.

Thiazide diuretics

Thiazide diuretics are often prescribed for hypertension

High blood pressure and thiazide diuretics

Originally, the active ingredient was developed for the treatment of edema. However, the efficacy against hypertension (high blood pressure) was discovered relatively quickly. In 1955, they were synthesized by researchers MSD Sharp and Dohme, and in 1957 they were introduced to the market. In 1975 the two developers were given an award for it.

When are thiazide diuretics used?

Thiazide diuretics have a wide range of applications: They are used not only for hypertension (essential hypertension), but also in heart failure and in the chronic form of hypercalciuria.

A further possibility, which leads to use the thiazide is for the treatment of diabetes insipidus, which is caused by the kidney. Sometimes they are also used at the beginning of a therapy to reduce existing edema in chronic venous insufficiency.

Diuretics for high blood pressure

They are often prescribed to supplement the treatment of combination agents such as beta-blockers (especially at an elevated blood pressure), ACE inhibitors or loop diuretics.

How are they administered?

Thiazide diuretics can be taken orally in tablet form. In this way, they are relatively quickly absorbed in the digestive tract. Chlorothiazide can also be administered parentally.

Side-effects of the drug

In general, the preparations (against including hypertension or hypertension) are well tolerated.

Occasionally there may be nausea, vomiting, and stomach discomfort.

Hypokalimie (lack of potassium or potassium deficiency), a retention of uric acid, a reduction in glucose tolerance and / or an increase in LDL cholesterol are (usually only at the beginning of treatment) also occur sometimes.

Side-effects of thiazide diuretics

Thiazide diuretics help if you have high blood pressure

Thiazide diuretics are also used to treat high blood pressure

There are rare side-effects and they usually occur following other complaints such as a hyponatremia (excess water) and / or hypomagnesemia (magnesium deficiency).

Even more rare side-effects are agranulocytosis (reduction of granulocytes = subset of leukocytes = white blood cells) and the occurrence of hyperparathyroidism (disorder of the parathyroid glands).

When taking thiazide diuretics it is important to carry out regular monitoring of the blood count.

What are the contraindications?

In a renal impairment thiazide diuretics may not be applied, because the power of the kidney is further impaired.

Excluded is the Thiazidanalogon xipamide that can be prescribed at a higher grade.

Here you can read more about the diuretics torasemide and their use in high blood pressure.

Thiazide diuretics

Diuretics in hypertension

Side effects of thiazide diuretics

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